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如何保证雅思作文的连贯性
2018-03-24 12:48    出国资讯    小波

  在写雅思作文时,我们经常会听到要保持文章的连贯性,那么我们为什么非要保持文章的连贯性,而且如何才能保持雅思写作连贯呢?让你的雅思写作能取得优异的成果。下面给大家详细讲解下关于雅思写作的连贯性的相关内容介绍,希望能帮助大家写好雅思作文。

  一、雅思写作的连贯性之雅思写作为何要保证连贯

  1、连贯性是文章能够传达信息的关键。1分对应的连贯性是几乎没有连贯性。丧失了连贯性的文章没有组织结构,没有内在逻辑,因而出现“不能传达任何信息”的描述。这很好理解,因为没有组织的文章,并不能完整地表达一个意思;文章各个部分之间,甚至可能是互相冲突的。我们能够进一步推知,认为雅思写作只考语言不看内容的想法是错误的;至少写作的评分标准当中强调了文章要表达一定的观点,这不是仅仅靠几个连接词就可以做到的。

  2、段落组织是实现连贯性、进而取得写作高分的重要任务。9分的标准是“非常有技巧地进行段落组织”,这话有点不太好理解,因为段落组织和有技巧地都太过抽象。但是基本的任务我们是明确的:就是要组织段落,表达和支持一个观点和意思。如果对这个组织有什么要求的话,那就是这些段落的组织要遵从一定的逻辑顺序,例如并列,递进,或者背反,等等。

  二、雅思写作的连贯性之雅思写作常犯的连贯错误

  第1类错误:连接词过于生硬或者过多

  错误分析

  有了一定写作基础的考生,往往忽略连贯的多样性,使得一篇作文的连接词变得异常死板和僵硬,灵活的连接词在一篇7分作文中是十分有必要的。

  例子

  首段连接词死板:

  学生版1:

  Firstly, the users can send E-mails to our friends in other countries in a few minutes while sending a traditional letter takes people at least a week and costs much. Secondly, users can make friends with people from all parts of the world. It overcomes the geographical barriers and makes the world smaller. Thirdly, the Internet accelerates the flow of information and spreads education to all corners of the globe. We can have easy and quick access to the latest information worldwide.

  修改版1:

  The users can send E-mails to our friends in other countries in a few minutes while sending a traditional letter takes people at least a week and costs much. These Users can also make friends with people from all parts of the world. It overcomes the geographical barriers and makes the world smaller. Another point, the Internet accelerates the flow of information and spreads education to all corners of the globe. We can have easy and quick access to the latest information worldwide.

  注:7分段的连接词不宜使用的过多(整篇文章控制在6-7个较明显的连接词即可)和过于明显

  第2类错误:主题段落缺少中心句

  错误分析

  当一个段落中包含着2-3个小观点(好处/坏处/原因/解决方案)时,一定要在每个段首写出一句概括性的中心句。

  例子

  学生版:

  The users can send E-mails to our friends in other countries in a few minutes while sending a traditional letter takes people at least a week and costs much. These Users can also make friends with people from all parts of the world. It overcomes the geographical barriers and makes the world smaller. Another point, the Internet accelerates the flow of information and spreads education to all corners of the globe. We can have easy and quick access to the latest information worldwide.

  修改版1:

  The application of E-mails has brought us three aspects of advantages. The users can send E-mails to our friends in other countries in a few minutes while sending a traditional letter takes people at least a week and costs much. These users can also make friends with people from all parts of the world. It overcomes the geographical barriers and makes the world smaller. Another merit, the Internet accelerates the flow of information and spreads education to all corners of the globe. We can have easy and quick access to the latest information worldwide.

  但是当每段只有1个小观点时,那么观点句本身就是中心句了,不需要额外再写中心句了。

  修改版2:

  Although there clearly are some demerits, I strongly believe the application of E-mails has brought us much more advantages. The users can send E-mails to our friends in other countries in a few minutes while sending a traditional letter takes people at least a week and costs much. These users can also make friends with people from all parts of the world. It overcomes the geographical barriers and makes the world smaller. Another merit, the Internet accelerates the flow of information and spreads education to all corners of the globe. We can have easy and quick access to the latest information worldwide.

  (这个版本涉及到承上启下的段落过度方法,请考生认真研究)

  第3类错误:指代错误或者不清晰

  错误分析: 每个段落内部代词(this/that/these/those/such/which/it/they/them)的使用是很多考生忽略的考点。大部分考生把注意力放在名词的同义替换上,造成词汇压力和考场速度减慢,其实这些问题都在代词指代上或许可以找到出路。

  例子

  学生版

  Adverts are almost everywhere (e.g. on TV, on buses, on mobile phones and even in toilets), largely dominating domestic consumption. Nonetheless, how further it can genuinely help those advertised products remains a contentious matter. While sales can be considerably promoted, I vehemently believe adverts are also effective in raising the quality.

  修改版

  Adverts are almost everywhere (e.g. on TV, on buses, on mobile phones and even in toilets), largely dominating domestic consumption. Nonetheless, how further they can genuinely help these advertised products remains a contentious matter. While sales can be considerably promoted, I vehemently believe they are also effective in raising the quality.

  三、雅思写作的连贯性之如何保证雅思写作连贯性

  1、意连

  段落中句子的排列应遵循一定的次序,不能想到什么就写什么。如果在下笔之前没有构思,边写边想,写写停停,那就写不出一气呵成的好文章来。下面介绍几种常见的排列方式。

  A.按时间先后排列(chronological arrangement)

  We had a number of close calls that day. When we rose, it was obviously late and we had to hurry so as not to miss breakfast; we knew the dining room staff was strict about closing at nine o'clock. Then, when we had been driving in the desert for nearly two hours ----- it must have been close to noon ---- the heat nearly hid us in; the radiator boiled over and we had to use most of our drinking water to cool it down. By the time we reached the mountain, it was four o'clock and we were exhausted. Here, judgement ran out of us and we started the tough climb to the summit, not realizing that darkness came suddenly in the desert. Sure enough, by six we were struggling and Andrew very nearly went down a steep cliff, dragging Mohammed and me along with him. By nine, when the wind howled across the flat ledge of the summit, we knew as we shivered together for warmth that it had not been our lucky day.

  本段从"rose"(起床)写起,然后是吃早餐("not to miss breakfast", "closing at nine o'clock"),然后是"close to noon",一直写到这一天结束("By nine--")。

  B.按位置远近排列(spatial arrangement)

  例如:From a distance, it looked like a skinny tube, but as we got closer, we could see it flesh out before our eyes. It was tubular, all right, but fatter than we could see from far away. Furthermore, we were also astonished to notice that the building was really in two parts: a pagoda sitting on top of a tubular one-story structure. Standing ten feet away, we could marvel at how much of the pagoda was made up of glass windows. Almost everything under the wonderful Chinese roof was made of glass, unlike the tube that it was sitting on, which only had four. Inside, the tube was gloomy, because of the lack of light. Then a steep, narrow staircase took us up inside the pagoda and the light changed dramatically. All those windows let in a flood of sunshine and we could see out for miles across the flat land.

  本段的写法是由远及近,从远处("from a distance")写起,然后"get closer",再到(" ten feet away"),最后是"inside the pagoda"……当然,按位置远近来写不等于都是由远及近。根据需要,也可以由近及远,由表及里等等。

  C.按逻辑关系排列(logical arrangement)

  a.按重要性顺序排列(arrangement insgroupsof importance)

  If you work as a soda jerker, you will, of course, not need much skill in expressing yourself to be effective. If you work on a machine, your ability to express yourself will be of little importance. But as soon as you move one step up from the bottom, your effectiveness depends on your ability to reach others through the spoken or the written word. And the further away your job is from manual work, the larger the organization of which you are an employee, the more important it will be that you know how to convey your thoughts in writing or speaking. In the very large business organization, whether it is the government, the large corporation, or the Army, this ability to express oneself is perhaps the most important of all the skills a man can possess.

  这一段谈的是表达能力,它的重要性与职业,身份有关,从"not need much skill"或"of little importance"到"more important",最后是"most important"。

  b.由一般到特殊排列(general-to-specific arrangement)

  If a reader is lost, it is generally because the writer has not been careful enough to keep him on the path. This carelessness can take any number of forms. Perhaps a sentence is so excessively cluttered that the reader, hacking his way through the verbiage, simply doesn't know what it means. Perhaps a sentence has been so shoddily constructed that the reader could read it in any of several ways. Perhaps the writer has switched tenses, or has switched pronouns in mid-sentence, so the reader loses track of when the action took place or who is talking. Perhaps sentence B is not logical sequel to sentence A ---- the writer, in whose head the connection is clear, has not bothered to provide the missing link. Perhaps the writer has used an important word incorrectly by not taking the trouble to look it up. He may think that "sanguine" and "sanguinary" mean the same thing, but the difference is a bloody big one. The reader can only infer what the writer is trying to imply.

  这一段谈的是a writer's carelessness,先给出一个general statement作为主题句,然后通过5个"perhaps"加以例证。

  c.由特殊到一般排列(specific-to-general arrangement)

  I do not understand why people confuse my Siamese cat, Prissy, with the one I had several years ago, Henry. The two cats are only alike in breed. Prissy, a quiet, feminine feline, loves me dearly but not possessively. She likes to keep her distance from people, exert her independence and is never so rude as to beg, lick, or sniff unceremoniously. Her usual posture is sitting upright, eyes closed, perfectly still. Prissy is a very proper cat. Henry, on the other hand, loved me dearly but possessively. He was my shadow from morning till night. He expected me to constantly entertain him. Henry never cared who saw him do anything, whether it was decorous or not, and he usually offended my friends in some way. The cat made himself quite comfortable, on the top of the television, across stranger's feet or laps, in beds, drawers, sacks, closets, or nooks. The difference between them is imperceptible to strangers.

  本段的主题句是段首句,它仅提出一个问题:为什么两只猫会被搞混。然后对两者进行比较,末句才下结论。

  2、形连

  行文的逻辑性常常要靠适当的转换词语及其他手段来实现。请读下面这一段文字并找出文中用以承上启下的词语:

  Walter's goal in life was to become a successful surgeon. First, though, he had to get through high school, so he concentrated all his efforts on his studies --- in particular, biology, chemistry, and math. Because he worked constantly on these subjects, Walter became proficient in them; however, Walter forgot that he needed to master other subjects besides those he had chosen. As a result, during his junior year of high school, Walter failed both English and Latin. Consequently, he had to repeat these subjects and he was almost unable to graduate on schedule. Finally, on June 6, Walter achieved the first step toward realizing his goal.

  本文中起承上启下的词语有两种,一种是转换词语(transitional words or phrases),另一种是起转换作用的其他连接手段(linking devices)。前者依次有:first, though, so, in particular, and, because, however, besides, as a result, both…and, consequently, and, finally.后者依次是:he, he, his, his, he, these, them, he, those, his, he, these, his.本段1有词汇105个,所使用的转换词语及其他连接用语共26个词,约占该段总词汇量的四分之一。由此可见,掌握好transitions不仅对行文的流畅(smoothness)有益,而且对于学生在规定时间内写足所要求的字数也是不无好处的。

  一个段落里如果没有transitions也就很难有coherence了.我们看下面一个例子:

  Speaking and writing are different in many ways. Speech depends on sounds. Writing uses written symbols. Speech developed about 500 000 years ago. Written language is a recent development. It was invented only about six thousand years  ago. Speech is usually informal. The word choice of writing is often relatively formal. Pronunciation and accent often tell where the speaker is from. Pronunciation and accent are ignored in writing. A standard diction and spelling system prevails in the written language of most countries. Speech relies on gesture, loudness, and rise and fall of the voice. Writing lacks gesture, loudness and the rise and fall of the voice. Careful speakers and writers are aware of the differences.

  本段中除了第6句开头出现一个起过渡作用的"it"之外,没有使用其他的过渡词语.这样,文中出现许多重复的词语,全段读起来也显得生硬而不自然。如果加上必要的过渡词语来修饰的话,这一段就成了下面一个流畅连贯的段落:

  Speaking and writing are different in many ways. Speech depends on sounds; writing, on the other hand, uses written symbols. Speech was developed about 500 000 years ago, but written language is a recent development, invented only about six thousand years ago. Speech is usually informal, while the word choice of writing, by contrast, is often relatively formal. Although pronunciation and accent often tell where the speaker is from, they are ignored in wiring because a standard diction and spelling system prevails in most countries. Speech relies on gesture, loudness, and the rise and fall of the voice, but writing lacks these features. Careful speakers and writers are aware of the differences.

  有损连贯性的几种情况:

  考生在写作中经常出现下面几种错误:

  1)不必要的改变时态,比如:

  In the movie, Robert Redford was a spy. He goes to his office where he found everybody dead. Other spies wanted to kill him, so he takes refuge with Julie Christie. At her house, he had waited for the heat to die down, but they come after him anyway.

  2)不必要的改变单复数,比如:

  Everybody looks for satisfaction in his life. They want to be happy. But if he seeks only pleasure in the short run, the person will soon run out of pleasure and life will catch up to him. They need to pursue the deeper pleasure of satisfaction in work and in relationships.

  3)不必要的改变人称,比如:

  Now more than ever, parents need to be in touch with their children's activities because modern life has the tendency to cause cleavages in the family. You need to arrange family like it so that family members will do things together and know one another. You need to give up isolated pleasures of your own and realize that parents have a set of obligations to sponsor togetherness and therefore sponsor knowledge.

  因此写作中,一定要注意时态,人称以及数的变化是否正确,要注意保持一致。

 

  以上就是给大家整理的关于雅思写作的连贯性的相关内容介绍,希望大家能在雅思写作中多多备考训练,运用上面的训练方法多多进行雅思写作连贯性练习,从而能让你的雅思写作取得高分成绩。

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