出国留学 > 托福考试 > 托福考试心得 > 托福语法中关于谓语动词和非谓语动词的用法
托福语法中关于谓语动词和非谓语动词的用法
2018-02-09 16:36    出国资讯    小波

  在托福考试中,无论在对托福阅读还是托福写作来说,语法都是最基础的部分。在托福语法中常常会考察到关于动词的用法,大家对托福语法动词的用法都了解多少呢?下面给大家详细介绍下关于托福语法动词的相关知识介绍,希望大家好好阅读下。

  一、托福语法动词之托福语法动词分类:

  动词主要分为谓语动词非谓语动词。在做涉及动词语法现象的题目时,首先需要判断这一整句话是否有谓语,也就是说,考生需要判断选项中的动词形式在句中是充当谓语成分还是非谓语成分。如果句子缺少谓语,可以排除选项中无法充当谓语的动词形式,如to take, taking, taken等。如果句子中已有谓语,需要选择的东西形式必定是非谓语动词,就可以排除选项中只能充当谓语的动词形式,如takes, are taking, would take等。

  二、托福语法动词之托福语法谓语动词的用法总结:

  主谓一致

  1. 主谓的分隔原则

  S, ---,VO

  主谓之间可以用定从及省略形式的定从分隔

  主谓一致与主语同位语无关

  2. 定语从句中的主谓一致

  …noun.+that/which+V

  that, which并不反映单复数

  one of 复n + that/which + 复V

  the only one of 复n + that/which + 单V

  3. 随前一致

  together with, as well as, with, including, of

  4. 随后一致

  not 单n. but 复n. + 复V

  not noly 单n. but also 复n. + 复V

  5. 就近一致

  单n. or 复n.

  either 单n. or 复n.

  neither 单n. nor 复n.

  is he or we… 对

  he or we are… 对

  6. 可数名词and可数名词+复数动词

  不可数名词and不可数名词+复数动词

  例外:war and peace is/was

  black and white is/was

  bread and butter is/was

  to love and to be loved is/was

  7. 百分比结构

  most, rest, half, majority, some, 50 percent, one percent

  __+of+n.+V 由名词决定动词的单复数

  8. 倒装句中的主谓一致

  There be…

  between , among 等介词位于句首,即引起倒装

  Between …+ be + noun.

  Among…+ be + noun.

  主 + 系 + 表

  主系关系要一致,系表关系可以不一致

  9. The+ adj.

  a. 表示“一类人”用复数V

  The rich are ridiculous

  b. 表示某一抽象概念

  The good is attractive

  10. one of + 复数noun. + 单V

  more than one 单数noun. + 单数V

  many a + 单noun. + 单V

  a + 单noun. or + two + 单V: a day or two

  news 单数 measles 不可数

  the series 用is/are从上下文得出

  时态

  1. in + 过去某一时间,用一般现在时

  2. befort+ 过去年份,用过去完成时

  3. for/since:

  for后跟时间段,可用现在完成和一般过去时

  since 后跟时间点,只能跟现在完成时

  I have been a teacher for 3 years.

  I have been a teacher since 1996.

  I was a teacher for 3 years.

  4. 自然现象、真理描述用一般现在时

  时态:现在完成时和一般过去时混用

  一般现在时和一般过去时混用

  语态

  考主被的混用

  一个证明,二个位于,三个需要,四个情感

  1. 证明:prove(vi) + to be + n./adj.

  prove(vt) + sth./that +句子

  my advice rpoved to be wrong

  2. 位于:locate永远考被动

  situate 主动:把...放置;确定位置

  被动:位于

  3. 需要:need, want, require

  ┏ 情态动词+动原

  ┃ ┏ doing

  need ┃ 实义动词 ┃ to do ...一般

  ┃ ┗ to be done

  ┗ n.词

  My watch need┏ repairing. 主动表被动

  ┗ to be repaired.

  require┏ to be done

  want ┗ doing

  4. 情感:please, annoy, surprise, move

  I am pleased. 主语高兴

  The news is pleasing. 令人高兴

  使...高兴(心烦、惊讶、感动)

  Franklin is so moved.

  The story is so moving.

  三、托福语法动词之托福语法非谓语动词用法:

  动词不定式:(to)+do, 具有名词、形容词、副词的特征。

  1. 不定式的形式:

  否定式:not + (to) do

  (1) 一般式:不定式的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生或发生在谓语动词动作之后, 例如:I'm glad to meet you.

  (2)进行式:不定式的进行式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生,例如:The boy pretended to beworking hard.

  (3)完成式:不定式的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前,例如:I regretted to have told a lie.

  2.不定式的句法功能:

  (1)作主语:

  To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard.

  动词不定式短语作主语时,常用it作形式主语,例如可用如下形式:

  It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes.

  (2)作表语:

  Her job is to clean the hall.

  (3)作宾语:

  常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse,manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用it作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式)后置,放在宾语补足语后面,例如:

  Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia.

  (4)作宾语补足语:

  在复合宾语中,动词不定式可充当宾语补足语,如下动词常跟这种复合宾语:want, wish, ask, tell, order,beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite.

  (5)作定语:

  动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后.与所修饰名词有如下关系:

  ①动宾关系:

  I have a meeting to attend.

  注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,如:

  He found a good house to live in.

  The child has nothing to worry about.

  What did you open it with­

  如果不定式修饰time, place, way,可以省略介词:

  He has no place to live.

  This is the best way to work out this problem.

  如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者,不定式可用主动式也可用被动式:

  Have you got anything to send­

  Have you got anything to be sent­

  ②说明所修饰名词的内容:

  We have made a plan to finish the work.

  ③被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语:

  He is the first to get here.

  (6)作状语:

  ①表目的:

  He worked day and night to get the money.

  She sold her hair to buy the watch chain.

  注意不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一致:

  wrong:To save money, every means has been tried.

  right:To save money, he has tried every means.

  wrong:To learn English well, a dictionary is needed.

  right:To learn English well, he needs a dictionary.

  ②表结果:

  He arrived late to find the train gone.

  常用only放在不定式前表示强调:

  I visited him only to find him out.

  ③表原因:

  They were very sad to hear the news.

  ④表程度:

  It's too dark for us to see anything.

  The question is simple for him to answer.

  doing

  The watermelons rolling on the ground are mine.

  1) 主动进行 doing

  The car being attacked is a Toyota.

  被动进行 being done

  The person being hit is a Japanese.

  2)完成时

  having done (done动作在谓语动词之前)

  Having finished this training, he went to America.

  having been done

  Having been communicated into China, the voice of China is widely watched among the young.

  done(完成、被动)

  The watermelons sold in the market are expensive.

 

  以上就是给大家整理的关于托福语法动词的相关内容介绍,包括了非谓语动词和谓语动词两种,希望大家着重了解下。每篇文章都是由一个个句子组成的,而每个句子都是一个个语法所堆砌的,因此语法对于考生来说,非常重要。

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